Saturday, July 4, 2009
Fats are deceivingly simple molecules. Fats are just atoms of carbon linked together in a chain. Assuming nothing is attached to either end of the chain (a free fatty acid), you will nd a carbon surrounded by hydrogen (CH ) on one end, and on the other end you will nd a few oxygens (COOH 3 or COO-). Surrounding all the carbons are hydrogen atoms. Now what gives vari- ous fats most of their biological character is the length of the chain and the number of double bonds. The more carbons, the longer the chain. A double bond is what you get when you take away a few hydrogens and the bond “doubles up” on the carbon (see picture). These double bonds are very important and dictate (along with the length and shape) the type of fat and its e ect on the body.
For example, a fatty acid chain with no double bonds is said to be “ satu-
rated” and is known as a saturated fat. These are fats that are hard at room
temperature. Although much maligned, saturated fats do have a place in
the diet of athletes, as will be explained later in this chapter. Put a single
double bond in the fat and it is a“ monounsaturated” fat. It becomes a“ poly-
unsaturated” fat, as you make more double bonds.
Olive oil is an source of monounsaturated fat, and oils such ax, corn, soy-
bean, etc. are sources of polyunsaturated fats, as they have multiple dou-
ble bonds. The more unsaturated a fat is, the lower melting point it has - so
these fats are liquid at room temperature.
Highly unsaturated fats such as those in sh oil actually remain liquid at
very low temperatures. This is why cold water sh have high levels of these
Saturated fatty acid: (caproic acid)
Like the essential amino acids, the body has two essential fatty acids it can-
not make itself – due to a lack of the necessary enzymes – so they must be
supplied by the diet and are aptly called the “ essential fatty acids” or EFAs.
The two EFAs are linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid ( ALA). LA is
known as an “ omega-6” fatty acid and ALA is known as an “ omega-3” fatty
acid. Minimum requirements for the essential fatty acids are 3 - 6% of daily
calories for LA and 0.5 - 1% of daily calories for ALA. Sources such as ax,
hemp, and perilla oils contain signi cant amounts of ALA, while sa ower,
sun ower, and grapeseed oils are high in LA.
As with many vitamins and minerals, it is di cult to get optimal amounts of
unprocessed essential fatty acids (especially the omega-3 fatty acids) from
our heavily processed food supply. The term “ omega-3 fatty acid” should
ring a bell for the reader.
Fish oils are a well-publicized source of the omega-3 fatty acid metabolites,
EPA and DHA, which our bodies make from ALA and has been shown to
have many bene ts. Although early research told us we need a bit more LA
than ALA, in practice, I nd that a diet higher in ALA produces the best re-
sults for athletes looking to build muscle with minimum increases in body
Americans tend to get their fats from saturated fats, rancid fats, and highly
processed fats (which contain by-products such as trans fatty acids), thus,
giving fats a bad name. EFAs are not to be avoided as a “bad fat” because all
fats are not created equal.
From a general health standpoint, EFAs are involved in literally thousands
of bodily processes essential to our health and general well being. Immu-
nity, aging, hormone production and hormone signaling... well, you get
the point. As one would expect, EFAs have been found to have many health
uses including cholesterol reduction, possible cancer prevention and the
treatment of in ammatory conditions.
In particular, the omega-3 fatty acids are anti-lipogenic (block fat storage),
anti- catabolic, and anti-in ammatory. They also increase beta-oxidation
(fat burning!), improve insulin sensitivity, increase thermogenesis and do
a whole lot more that we don’t have the space, time, or need, to cover in
Recent research has found that EFAs, in particular the omega-3 lipids, con-
trol gene transcription. Omega-3 lipids appear to have the unique ability
to enhance thermogenesis and thereby reduce the e ciency of body fat
For the more technically adept: omega-3 lipids play essential roles in the
maintenance of energy balance and function as fuel partitioners. They do
this by directing glucose toward glycogen storage and directing fatty acids
away from triglyceride synthesis and assimilation - thus aiding fatty acid
oxidation (fat burning).
EFAs exert their e ects on lipid metabolism and thermogenesis by up-
regulating the transcription of uncoupling proteins and increasing the en-
coding for genes that produce enzymes involved in fatty acid utilization;
while down-regulating the transcription of genes encoding for enzymes
involved in lipid synthesis, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS).
A lack of EFAs, especially the omega-3 EFAs, appears to be one of the dietary
factors leading to the development of obesity and insulin resistance seen
in Syndrome X. Syndrome X is a process whereby the body becomes resis-
tant to insulin. The result is a long list of health problems, such as weight
gain, heart disease, high blood pressure and full blown diabetes.
Of particular interest, the body makes compounds called prostaglandins
– as well as other highly unsaturated compounds – from both of the essen-
tial fatty acids. Prostaglandins are highly active, short-lived, hormone-like
substances that regulate cellular activities on a moment to moment basis.
Prostaglandins are directly involved with regulating blood pressure, in-
ammatory responses, insulin sensitivity, immune responses, anabolic/
unknown. To sum up without going into a long and boring biochemical
explanation: omega-3 fatty acids are responsible for forming anti-in am-
matory prostaglandins and omega-6 fatty acids are responsible for many
of the pro-in ammatory prostaglandins (in addition to the many other
products derived from EFAs).
There are approximately 20 or so amino acids that can make up a protein. Eight of them are considered essential and the body cannot make them on its own (the de nition of an essential nutrient), thus they are required from our diet. Technically, the non-essential aminos can be made from the essential aminos. There are also amino acids considered “conditionally” -
essential under certain conditions and or populations.
If you link several aminos together you get a peptide. Keep linking pep-
tides together and you get a protein. The shape of the individual amino
acids and resulting proteins is quite unique and highly speci c, so I won’t
go into great detail here. Su ce it to say, amino acids are the structural
unit of a protein molecule.
Protein (or more appropriately, amino acids) is the only macronutrient that
supplies nitrogen to drive lean tissue growth (anabolism). Although ath-
letes usually focus on the e ect that protein has on skeletal muscle, it is
equally important for people to understand that there are other disposal
sites of amino acid nitrogen in the human body.
In simple terms, these include structural proteins, DNA, RNA, phospholip-
ids, enzymes neurotransmitters, and bile acids, to name a few. The bottom
line is that there are many uses for protein in the body unrelated to just
We need protein to build or regenerate skeletal muscle. However, many
people don’t understand the other functions protein has within the body,
as alluded to above. Upon digestion, amino acids from ingested proteins
enter what is called the“free amino acid pool.” The amino acids can then be
diverted to di erent areas of the body for utilization depending on what
the body needs. For example, some amino acids are used as an energy
source through their conversion to glucose, using a process called gluco-
Others are used to synthesize proteins in many di erent tissues. Dietary
protein can also be converted to fat, though this is a very ine cient pro-
cess in humans and is not a major source of body fat, contrary to what you
may have been led to believe by some nutritional “authorities.”
To most people, understanding nutrition is only slightly less confusing than
understanding Einstein's theory of relativity. A new book or article comes
out weekly espousing the latest, greatest way of eating.
understanding nutrition with the goal of optimizing your body's anabolic
environment. What does that mean exactly?
Bodybuilders and other athletes have come to use the term " anabolic" to
mean the building of muscle. This is only partly true. For example, physiol-
ogy or nutrition texts will normally de ne anabolic or "anabolism" as the
phase of metabolism in which simple substances are synthesized into the
complex materials of living tissue or a process by which larger molecules
are formed from smaller ones.
What does this mean to the reader in plain English?
When you are in an anabolic state you rarely, if ever, exclusively build mus-
cle. It is unavoidable that some body fat will be added to the equation.
Total beginners and people using copious amounts of various drugs (i.e.
anabolic steroids, growth hormone, etc.) can put on lean body mass (LBM)
almost exclusively at times, but this is the exception, not the rule. Have
you ever seen a pro bodybuilder in person o -season? They are proof that
- even with large amounts of drugs - to add new LBM, adding some body
fat is a reality. The pros that do try and stay hard (say under 8 - 9% body fat)
year-round also nd their gains in LBM are slow to non-existent. If that's
how it is for them with drugs and great genetics, how do you think it works
So, for most, the trick is to maximize, as much as possible, adding LBM,
while minimizing the addition of body fat.
People need to understand that body fat % is a ratio. By optimizing LBM
gains, the small amount of fat gained can be easily cut - ultimately leaving
them with a larger ratio of LBM to fat. When all is said and done, you can
reduce your body fat percentage by increasing LBM even if you never lose
an ounce of the fat you started out with
A 200 lb. person starting a gaining cycle with 15% bodyfat.
200 lb. x .15 = 30 lb. fat; 200 lb. - 30 lb. = 170 lb. lean mass
Let’s assume he adds 16 lb. of lean mass + 4 lb. of fat (20 lb.) This per-
son will now be 220 lb., with 34 lb. fat and 186 lb. lean mass.
That 4 lb. of additional fat can easily be shed in 2 short weeks of mod-
erate dieting with no loss of LBM.
220 lb. - 4 lb. = 216 lb. (186 lb. LBM + 30 lb. fat
30 lb./216 lb. = 0.139 = 13.9%
Even though the person in this example still has the same 30 lb. of
fat he started with, his body fat percentage has dropped from 15% to
13.9%., due to the increase in lean body mass.
That is the ultimate goal of this chapter; to be low in jargon and high in use-
ful “real world” information to maximize gains in muscle, while minimizing
gains in body fat.
There are three major factors that will dictate whether or not a person
will gain muscle mass: genetics, form of exercise (i.e. weight training), and
Without any of the three being optimized, gains in lean body mass will be
minimal or non-existent. At the very least, the gains in LBM will be sub-op-
timal at best.
Unfortunately, we have essentially no control over the rst, which is your
genetics. A well-known quote in bodybuilding circles is, “the most impor-
tant way to guarantee success in bodybuilding is to pick the right parents!”
In truth, modern science is not far away from being able to turn “on” certain
genes that are responsible for a variety of functions in the body.
Weight Loss begins by understanding how much energy you expend versus what you take in. Weight loss probably comes from following the diet. Weight loss can be done easily but to manage weight and prevent weight regain is a difficult task. Weight Loss Wisdom: Dieting help when you really need it. Weight loss only erases the symptoms of persistent issues to weight control such as aging, processed food, metabolism damage, eating behavior and the fact we all spend long periods of time 'out of it' with respect to weight loss and fitness.
Diets to promote weight loss are generally divided into four categories: low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie, and very low calorie. Dieting, especially extreme food-intake reduction and rapid weight loss, , possibly leading to death Subsequent weight gain. Diet Drinks can stop you from losing weight, therefore drink an equal amount of water immediately after a diet drink to help flush your system or better yet, avoid diet drinks every other day or if you have the will power all days except your "cheat day" .
Eating a healthy diet is of key importance to your weight-loss success. Eating has made you fat, so eating can also make you thin if you know how to do it right. Eating the right kinds of food that burn fat and speed your metabolism should be your first step in your weight loss program. Eating an excessive amount, like anything, will. Eating the right kinds of food that burn fat and speed your metabolism should be your first step in your weight loss program.
Lose weight in a healthy, no pill, no gimmick way and share successes and frustrations. Lose weight in a safe, caring, supportive environment and transform your life.
Foods that need a long shelf life are packed full of salt and preservatives to help them stay fresh while they sit on the shelf in the store or in your home
Learn what may be preventing you from losing weight, People taking aspirin or blood thinning medications should consult their doctor before taking green tea extracts, because green tea extracts may interfere with blood clotting. Tea, specifically Wu-Yi, has been one of.
. Quick Weight Loss Support and Motivation The challenge that men and women just like you told us that they have when attempting weight loss is a lack of will power and motivation. This approach allows the dieter to promote weight loss through eating fewer calories while eating normal amounts of food and so not getting hungry.
There are many causes for overweight. Most people, however, are overweight simply because they overeat. A very small percentage of people are obese due to some endocrine or glandular disorder. Some cases possibly are due to an error in the individual's metabolism. And still another small percentage of cases result from an inherited or constitutional trait that runs in families and is passed on from one generation to another like coloring, or facial and bodily structure.
But the causes of obesity in over 95 per cent of the victims are: (1) nervousness, and (2) bad eating habits.
Nervousness is a primary cause of overweight. People overeat from nervousness, either conscious or subconscious, for a variety of reasons. Some people, when they feel anxious, constantly and regularly relieve their anxiety by the elemental satisfaction of eating. As they become more and more anxious, they require more and more food and become more and more fat! A vicious cycle.
. Unfortunately, people are intensely human and, to give a new twist to an old maxim, the spirit is willing but the flesh is strong. The result has been a widespread practice of "stop-and-go" dieting aimed not at improved health, but at a more fashionable silhouette.
Nothing could be worse than that kind of up-and-down-the-scales program. In the first place, you benefit from reduced weight only if the normal weight is maintained from that time on. Taking it off and then putting it on again is worse than remaining overweight, because it is in the process of becoming fat that a large part of the damage is done. This damage occurs in the blood vessels, liver, and heart—all critical sites of the body.
Although the process of becoming fat is more detrimental than being fat, carrying around an over-upholstered frame is also a way to shorten the period of your sojourn on earth. As you put on excessive fat, movement of the blood throughout the body is slowed. The heart has to work harder to keep the circulation
going. And the added weight places a greater burden upon your joints, which may develop trouble as a consequence.
Is overweight due to "glandular trouble"? You may often hear laymen express the view that some people are fat because of "glandular trouble." Such cases actually are very few. The reason most people are fat is simply because they eat more food than they actually need for their activities. The only way to cut down on weight is to cut down on eating, to reduce the number of calories in your daily diet.
Many things are wrong with our diet and eating habits.
Nowhere in the world is food treated so badly before it is eaten as in the United States. Here it is raised by the use of artificial chemicals. In an all-out effort aimed at quantity, rather than quality, we do everything humanly possible to destroy the original character that the Creator provided and intended for the yield of the earth. Moreover, by the time most of our food reaches the consumer, it is too highly processed, refined, and improperly preserved.
To add to this inadequacy, we destroy what nutrient value remains by flame, fire, by watering it down with tap water, and by overloading it with salt, sugar, or seasoning.
Then we sit down during hurried and harried business hours and bolt it down.
And the result?
Some 50 million or more Americans, adults and children, suffer from constipation, bad teeth, skin troubles, digestive disorders, fatigue, nervousness, and a multitude of other complaints. Most of them are caused directly by poor nutrition and sub-clinical vitamin deficiencies.
To add to these digestive troubles, modern man has cut his oxygen intake by living indoors, often in artificially heated cells or rooms, and has lost contact with both sunshine and fresh air. This unnatural way of life is undoubtedly responsible for important metabolic changes that have occurred in civilized man. He has brought certain evils upon himself by losing those "catalysts" or "stokers of the body furnace."
As a crowning insult to nature, we frequently sit scrunched in a chair most of our days, living in a constant state of tension and apprehension at our work. Man was originally very energetic, physically active and almost constantly engaged in some exercise or other. Today, thanks to our mechanical genius, we tend to depend upon a push-button instead of a muscle.
All these factors make it necessary for us to seek "outside help" to make up for our nutritional and hygienic shortcomings.