Friday, July 31, 2009
Sleeping pills can not provide quality restorative sleep, which many people were wrong to believe. Taking sleeping pills is not a long term solution for insomnia, but with an appearance of lack of alternatives, it may be easy to fall into the trap All the progress made by mankind in terms of technology and development is welcomed as a step to make life comfortable in the land. However, the irony is all these developments have only served to take away the dream of a large proportion of the population of the earth.
A growing number of men and women are spending the time between getting out of bed and then crash into a beat. And the intervals between going to bed and getting up are becoming more and more. Everywhere there is a mad rush to avoid being excluded. Arriving at his office, passing the children in school, go shopping at the grocery store, leaves us all a simple task stressed and tired.
A recent study shows that most adults in their time of sleep. This may be due to hectic work schedules or simply because they sleep outside. A recently held survey showed that only 50 percent of Americans were getting the sleep they need.
Many people take the easy way - pop a sleeping pill. Sleeping pills are good if you are ill and his doctor has informed them. Taking them is that while also help you through a traumatic period in his life, the loss of a loved one. But if your dream is totally dependent on sleeping pills and sleep disorders are constantly worrying that the alarm should start ringing.
It is indisputable that the shape of modern life leads to loss of sleep. Never-ending deadlines, the tensions of a competitive life, long-distance travel and jet lag, almost everything that we are compelled to do so by the circumstances in modern life lead to loss of sleep and sleep disorders.
Add to that environmental factors - increased noise levels, increased toxicity, the increase in background radiation ... We're not giving our bodies any reason not to stress!
The fact is a healthy body without stress will have no trouble sleeping and relaxing. Since we can not avoid the factors of sleep-deprived around us, all we can do is learn how to combat them.
This is where a group of sugars is surprising that only recently have scientists come to the attention can help. They wonder sugars called glyconutrients, are a group of plant sugars. Glyconutrients are essential for cell to cell communication. And play an important role in modulating the stress response.
Glyconutrients bind to proteins and lipids in the cell walls in a process called glycosylation. This process is to be drastically altered in different types of stress such as illness, accidents, trauma and other mental. In times of stress level glycoforms increased significantly to help in the restoration of normal cell function and help manage stress. The correlation between glyconutrients and stress is very clear here.
The problem is that stress also makes the complex process of synthesis in the human body glyconutrients to go wrong. In short, stressed body can not get the necessary amount of glyconutrients. Which is why glyconutritionals or glyconutrient regularly taking supplements is necessary to combat stress and sleep loss
. Another reason for not taking sleeping pills is that prolonged use can cause rebound insomnia. Studies have shown that frequent use of sleeping pills is associated with increased health risks
Frequent use of sleeping pills is associated with increased mortality: people who often rely on sleeping pills to fall asleep also have increased risk of death from heart disease, cancer, stroke, and even suicide.
Whether you’re building or cutting, you should have a reliable method for estimating your body fat percentage. As you gain - or lose - weight your body fat percentage will tell you what the change means. There are a variety of techniques that can be used that vary in time, ex- pense, and accuracy/precision. The pros and cons of each are outlined be- low.
DEXA: “DEXA” stands for Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. As the name
implies, low level X-rays at two di erent energy levels are used to deter-
mine body composition. DEXA scans can di erentiate between soft body
tissues and bone - which makes it especially valuable for providing esti-
mates of bone mineral density.
Pros: DEXA scans are:
highly accurate. DEXA is considered to be the “gold standard” for body
non-invasive. All you need to do is lie on the table and hold still.
requires no special preparations. There is no need to fast prior to the
test, or restrict activity, medications, etc.
radiation exposure is low. The amount of radiation used for body comp
testing is equivalent to a single day’s worth of normal background ra-
Cons: DEXA scans are:
expensive. The prices vary by facility, but I’ve seen some programs that
charge around $70 - $150.
inconvenient. DEXA units are typically housed in hospital, university,
and other clinical/research settings. They aren’t freely accessible to the
public - you need to be referred by a healthcare provider, enrolled in a
research study, or participating in an outpatient hospital or clinic pro-
gram to access the service
A DEXA scan - if you can get one - is best used as an occasional check to
verify your own body comp estimates.
Hydrostatic (Underwater) Weighing: Hydrostatic weighing is another
highly accurate method for assessing body fat percentage. The test actu-
ally measures total body density. Since the density of fat is less than lean
mass (fat oats!), the contribution of fat and lean tissues to your total body
density can be determined mathematically.
Pros: hydrostatic weighing is:
accurate. Hydrostatic weighing was considered the method of choice
for body composition testing prior to the development of more high-
less expensive than DEXA. The typical cost of a test runs around $25
- $50 (US).
Cons: hydrostatic weighing is:
inconvenient. Since immersion is required, the test is limited to facili-
ties that provide a “dunk tank.” Although some larger, more expensive
private health clubs and facilities now o er this service, your best bet is
to go to a local university athletic department.
complicated. Prior preparation is required: you cannot eat or exercise
within 3 hours of the test. A swim suit and towel are also needed. Re-
sidual lung volume also needs to be measured to correct for the error
that inhaled air can introduce into the assessment.
Air Displacement Plethysmography: This is popularly known as “Bod Pod”
testing. The Bod Pod measures total body density, similarly to hydrostatic
weighing. The di erence is that the air displacement, rather than water, is
used. Bod Pod units are sold commercially, and can be found in a variety
Pros: The Bod Pod is:
fairly accurate. Clinical studies have shown that Bod Pod results are
comparable to hydrostatic weighing, although in practice, discrepan-
cies have been noted.
convenient: Bod Pod measurement is similar in accessibility and price
to hydrostatic weighing, but considerably less time consuming and
Cons: The Bod Pod is:
less accurate than hydrostatic weighing for certain populations and
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA): BIA assessments of body compo-
sition actually measure the resistance to a low, safe electical current passed
through the body. Electricity is conducted more readily through body wa-
ter contained in muscle and other lean tissues than it does through fat.
More sophisticated, research grade BIA devices rely on hand and foot elec-
trodes, whereas home-use devices (scales and hand held instruments) rely
on foot-to-foot or hand-to-hand circuits.
Pros: BIA measurements are:
simple and fast. BIA devices are often used in commercial gyms and
clinic settings for this reason.
relatively inexpensive. Home devices cost about $50 - $200. The more
expensive home units generally o er multiple test modes, such as “ath-
Cons: BIA measurements are:
imprecise. Total body water uctuates throughout the day. The most
accurate readings are made using clinical instruments and subjects who
adhere to the pre-test protocol (no eating/drinking for several hours be-
fore the test; no exercise, ca eine, or alcohol 24 hours before the test).
Needless to state, it is very di cult to standardize testing conditions
with a device designed for frequent home use. Home measurements
often vary 3 - 4% over the course of a single day.
Preparing 5 - 7 balanced meals a day, seven days a week, sounds like a full time job. And if you had to make only one meal at a time, it would be. Fortunately, a little advance planning will save you both time and energy when it comes to making meals. The meals you eat on the BBR program can be quickly and easily assembled simply by following a few basic guidelines.
Cook in bulk: Cooking foods in larger amounts is invaluable for meal
planning. In the time it takes to cook one chicken breast, you can cook
6 - 8, and have the leftover meat available for eating as is, or ready to
use in recipes. Many lean protein sources can be pre-cooked and
stored for later use: chicken and turkey breasts, pork tenderloin, lean
roast beef, seafood, etc. Even if you're a single person, you can make
recipes in larger amounts, and refrigerate or freeze the leftovers in sin-
gle-serving containers. Soups, chili, stews, casseroles, meatloaf, etc.
are ideal for bulk cooking and storage. It shouldn't be necessary to
purchase commercial canned soups or frozen entrees to accommo-
date a single appetite.
Starchy carbohydrate foods like brown rice, other whole grains, and le-
gumes can also be pre-cooked, and used for several di erent meals.
You can also make ahead and freeze homemade protein bars, pan-
cakes, and quick breads for snacks/meals. The recipe section in the
Members' Area forum has a number of recipes you can make ahead
and store for snacks and meals.
use of precut, ready-to-eat, and frozen vegetables/fruits: Larg-
er vegetables such as broccoli or cauli ower can be precut and stored
in resealable plastic bags for eating raw, or adding to recipes and sal-
ads. Ready-to-eat vegetables such as peeled baby carrots and grape/
cherry tomatoes are also handy. Frozen vegetables are an alternative
to fresh, and are often more nutritious and less expensive than out-of-
season, “fresh” vegetables shipped in from miles away and stored for
periods of time. It takes only moments to put a cup or two of fro-
zen or precut veggies into a microwavable dish. Use bagged, pre-
washed baby spinach leaves and other salad greens, or make/bag your
own bulk, ready-to-eat salad.
Use Your Blender: Keep bags of frozen, unsweetened berries (particu-
larly blueberries) and other fruit in the freezer for adding to home-
made MRPs/smoothies. Add protein powder, ground axseeds/ ax
oil, and other ingredients for a fast meal-in-a-glass.
Make use of acceptable ready-to-eat products: Keep single serving
containers of cottage cheese, low-carb or light yogurt, reduced-fat
string cheese, pre-seasoned tuna, and MRP packets around for fast,
portion-controlled snacks and/or o ce meals. Other pre-made foods
such as hummus, guacamole, pre-cooked rotisserie chicken, reduced
sodium, low fat deli turkey/chicken breasts and lean roast beef can
also be used. Foods that don’t require preparation, like whole grain
crispbreads, nuts/seeds, and fruit can be used to round out quick
With a little practice, you’ll nd that you can minimize shopping trips, and
plan your eating 3 - 4 days in advance, without having to eat the same
menu over-and-over again, 7 days a week
Thursday, July 30, 2009
If you want to become healthy, you must first tell you that you want to be healthy. This article is about weight loss and how to live a healthier life, I hope it will be interesting and beneficial to read. I have had many problems with my weight over the years and by the age of twenty-two had had enough of being obese. In the article I write about how I lost my excess pounds.
I have always struggled to keep my weight under control. Excess weight is concerned all my life, I could not wear clothing that I wanted and I often felt guilty after eating certain foods. He firmly believed that if only I could lose a couple of stones that would increase my confidence and ultimately be much happier.
I have read many books and tried to follow a series of diets. For some reason this does not seem to help me, mainly because I could not stick to their weight loss programs because of my love of fatty foods.
One day I was talking to a neighbor who was not only nice but also quite thin. She looked very fit and healthy and asked me how they kept so trim.
The neighbor who called Gillian seems quite surprised and flattered by my question and I was very shy. He noted that at one point in her life, she also had a weight problem and was not happy. What she was about to say was quite a shock for me, but the time to change my life.
She continued that when she was at this stage of her life, she will travel to by car. Gillian had noticed that in an average week, did very little exercise, and sometimes did nothing at all. Then went out and bought a dog and this dog to walk at least twice a day. It was not a choir and Gillian in the coming years, including as a result of a series of meeting new friends. Previously seen as a nuisance Gillian exercise and a lot of time but on different days would have your dog on four walks, enjoyed a lot.
Gillian quickly realized that not only was she losing weight, but she also felt much healthier. It was not long before she was at a weight that was happy with.
After hearing the story of Gillian decided to follow her weight loss program. Yes I went and bought a dog and I am happy to report that he has also worked for me.
If you’re a bodybuilder - or want to look like one - it’s safe to say that you want to be as lean as possible. And no matter how clean your diet is, body fat is always going to be an issue. If you’re gaining, you want to minimize fat gains, and if you’re cutting, you want to accelerate fat loss. While doing cardio for cardiovascular tness is important, the main reason most body- builders do cardio is to get as lean as possible. And certainly cardio can help with fat loss: it’s one of the things I recommend to people.
In the traditional view of things, prolonged, steady-state cardio is the best
means for either reducing or keeping fat gains down, thanks to what is
known as the “Fat Burning Zone”.
This requires some explanation...when we eat food, our bodies convert it
into forms that are used to fuel our activities. Whether we’re sleeping or
training, we burn the same preferred substrates for fuel: carbohydrate and
fat. The only thing that changes is the percentage of each that gets used
for di erent activities.
Both carbohydrates and fat combine with oxygen (O2) during the process
of being broken down to carbon dioxide (CO ) and water. Thus, it’s pos-
sible to measure the contribution that each makes by measuring the ratio
of the gases inhaled vs. those exhaled during exercise. The volume of CO
produced divided by the volume of O consumed is called the Respiratory
Exchange Ratio (RER).
There are some equations involved, and I won’t bore you with them. The
bottom line is: if only fat is being utilized for energy, the RER has a value
of 0.7. If only carbohydrate is being used for energy, the RER works out
to 1.0. An RER value between 0.7 and 1.0 means that a mixture of fat and
carbohydrate is being broken down for energy. It’s also possible to have
an RER larger than 1.0: this means that CO is being produced faster than
O2 is being taken in.
There are a lot of technical details involved, but the main point to remem-
ber is this: as the measured RER approaches 1.0, the percentage of fat be-
ing burned for energy decreases
Why is this important? Because measurements of RER have shown that
higher intensity exercise uses proportionally less fat to fuel the activity than
lower intensity exercise does. One small study on 9 male football players
exercised at di erent intensities came up with the following numbers:
Exercise Level (km/h)
(From Maiolo et al., 2003)
As you can see from the data in the table, RER increases with the exercise
level. This means that a greater amount of fat is being utilized at rest and
during lower intensity exercise, while little or no fat is being used at the
So to tie it all together, the relationship between exercise intensity and
fat oxidation during exercise is behind the idea of the “Fat Burning Zone”
(FBZ). The FBZ is the level of intensity that maximizes the use of fat to fuel
the exercise. The FBZ seemed to be con rmed by research. For example,
one study compared the fat and carbohydrate utilization of ten men, who
cycled either at 33% VO max or 66% VO max on separate days. The study
found that the lower intensity exercise burned more fat (42.4 g vs. 24 g)
and less carbohydrate (142.5 g vs. 188.8 g) than the moderate intensity ex-
A 2002 study, “Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal
fat oxidation’” provided additional con rmation. The study monitored the
fat oxidation rates of 18 moderately trained cyclists over a series of pro-
longed, continuous exercise tests using constant work rates. The research-
ers found that the range for optimal fat oxidation was from 55% to 72% VO
max. This corresponds roughly to 69% - 80% MHR (maximum heart rate).
This was a small study with a lot of variation between the subjects, however.
A later study using a much larger group of untrained men and women put
“Fatmax” at 48.3% VO2max, or approx. 61.5% MHR
So exercising in the FBZ must be the best way to work o excess body fat,
Maybe not: one problem with the FBZ concept is that only the ratio of the
fat vs. carbohydrate being burned for energy is considered; not the over-
all fat calories or total calories burned. Lower intensity exercise may use
a higher percentage of fat calories, but burns fewer calories overall than
higher intensity work. You can burn just as many total fat calories if you
increase the intensity: the percentage of fat used may be smaller, but since
you’re burning more total calories, it evens out.
I think most people trying to lose fat would agree that burning more calo-
ries is better than burning less.
More importantly, measurements made only during exercise are mislead-
ing, since they don’t account for changes in fat oxidation or metabolism
that occur after exercise. As you increase the intensity, you also increase
the impact that exercise has on post-exercise metabolism. In one study on
college-aged women, for example, fat oxidation during a 3 hour recovery
period was considerably higher after cycling sessions at 75% VO2max that
used the same amount of energy (500 kcal) as longer sessions at 50% VO2
max. The bottom line is that there were no signi cant di erences in total
fat oxidation between the two groups over the measurement period. The
researchers also reported that the rate of fat oxidation in the high intensity
group remained elevated even at the end of the 3 hour recovery period.
Another study on 24-hour energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation
patterns in men, showed there was no advantage to low intensity exercise
with regard to fat oxidation. The researchers concluded:
“Similarly, the di erences in HI and LI exercise, RQ are compensated postexer-
cise leading to similar substrate oxidation patterns over 24 h independently of
the level of exercise intensity.”*
Similar results have been obtained by others. As noted in a 2001 study:
*RQ is an alternate term for RER.
“Furthermore, low- and high-intensity aerobic exercise, matched for energy
expended during exercise, have similar e ects on 24-h nutrient oxidation. We
therefore conclude that low-intensity exercise does not promote greater “fat
burning,” as has been popularized among the lay press.”
Now you might conclude from this that it doesn’t matter which kind of
exercise you do - the end result is the same. But in the 2004 study, for ex-
ample, the high intensity (HI) exercise bouts lasted only 30 minutes each,
vs. 60 minutes for the low-intensity (LI) sessions. So equivalent results were
obtained in half the exercise time. To quote again from the 2001 paper:
“Given that time is a limiting factor for most individuals, we would also suggest
that, if the goal of exercise is to maximize fat oxidation to better regulate body
fat mass, then exercise should be performed at the highest intensity that can
be comfortably maintained. “
So what’s the take home lesson? There’s little point to spending long peri-
ods of time doing low-to-moderate intensity cardio for fat loss...unless you
enjoy that sort of thing. When it comes to fat burning, higher intensity
exercise works just as well as lower-intensity exercise, and you’ll spend less
time doing it. Looks like a bargain to me.
There are also other reasons to raise the intensity of your cardiovascular
exercise that extend beyond simple fat burning, which are discussed in the
Eating every 3 hours or so has the effect of providing your body with a steady stream of nutrients throughout the day. Small, frequent feedings of high-quality protein maintain the amino acid levels needed to repair and build new muscle.
Needless to state, this process is interrupted at night, by sleep. Once the
nal meal has been digested and absorbed, no more food is eaten until
the next morning. And even though you’re sleeping, your body still uses
energy. Other biochemical processes continue as well. During the posta-
bsorptive state, the needs of the body must be met using stored nutrients.
Although protein synthesis still occurs, the body enters a net catabolic
state. By morning, the rate of protein degradation is greater than protein
synthesis. Skeletal muscle contains nearly one-half of the total body pro-
tein and plays an important role in maintaining the free amino acid pool
during this period.
Feeding eventually restores the balance between protein breakdown and
synthesis, although it would be nice to nd some way to prevent - or at
least reduce - the amount of muscle protein breakdown during sleep.
In the supplement section review of casein, I discussed a study, “Slow and
fast dietary proteins di erently modulate postprandial protein accretion”,
that examined the impact of protein digestion rate on protein synthesis
and breakdown. The researchers compared whey to casein. What they
found was that a quickly digested protein like whey was better for increas-
ing protein synthesis, while a slow digesting protein like casein resulted in
a much lower, prolonged enhancement of amino acid levels - which wasn’t
very e ective for boosting synthesis, but was good for preventing protein
So there’s a possibility that a small amount of a slow protein like casein,
consumed at bedtime, would maintain amino acid levels su ciently to
blunt the catabolic e ects of fasting on your muscles while we sleep.
Is there any proof at this point that having a “bedtime snack” will result in
extra pounds of muscle? None at all. In view of the research, my take is
that a snack before sleep is a wise precaution, but strictly optional.
Does it have to be casein? Maybe not. Most animal proteins digest much
more slowly than whey does. But casein is an extremely large protein, and
associates with other caseins to form large complexes that gel in the stom-
ach and are especially di cult to digest. So, unless you’re allergic to it,
casein is probably one of the best proteins you could use for this purpose.
A good bedtime snack will contain about 30 - 50 g of protein, with minimal
carbs. A small amount of healthy fat could be added to slow digestion even
further. It doesn’t need to be elaborate: this isn’t a full meal. A couple of
scoops of a casein-based protein powder or some cottage cheese should
do the trick.
These nutritional enhancements won’t work miracles, of course. If your
training and/or nutrition over the rest of the day aren’t up to snu , con-
suming pre-/post-workout drinks and eating a bedtime protein snack
won’t make up for those shortcomings. In conjunction with a good training
program and diet however, these additions have the potential to add to
your success. It’s your entire program of nutrition, supplementation and
training that will bring success, not one or two simple changes.
Just remember, it’s not rocket science, so don’t make it any more compli-
cated then it needs to be
Wednesday, July 29, 2009
Losing weight is one of the most difficult challenges a person can overcome, but it is a challenge that can be achieved. Losing weight is becoming a common goal with many people. And this is becoming difficult and complex task, with all the conflicting information out there. Thus, this article is logically sound and effective tips that you can take to find a diet that will give maximum benefit and effectiveness. Losing weight is a task that requires great determination and discipline.( fat loss plans )
1. Find a program that provides realistic goals.
Avoid diets that promise weight loss overnight. Diets that promise unrealistic promises that are not designed to lose weight. Diets take time to work. Choose a diet based on their food preferences. Like sweet foods? Choosing a diet that is high on the intake of carbohydrates. Allow your body to transition to the new diet easily by selecting the food you like. By doing so, you can be on a diet and still enjoy it.
2. Research the credentials of your chosen diet.
The best diet to lose weight is that it is created by an experienced physician, health professional or doctor. These people spent years studying how the body works and what's good for her. Before choosing a diet, make sure you try to find out whether the diet of their roots, which you created, and how many people have benefited. The more background you get from the diet, the better.
3. Plan it out.
Not to proceed with planning a diet without at least a week ahead. The diet is all about taking the right kinds of foods in the correct amount. If you can not prepare your meals the right way, you do not end after your diet at all. Here's a suggestion - before starting out on his new diet, rid your refrigerator of anything that your diet plan asks you to avoid. If you can not do it, even the best in the world for weight loss diet does not work for you.
4. Comply strictly with the diet plan.
There is no sense in searching for the best diet to lose weight only to forget about it after two to three days. Once again, the diet has time to work. After that it is hard. Therefore, prepare mentally and physically. And make sure it is up to the challenge. Do not worry. The results may be too large that could be expected.
There you have it! You know the best diet to lose weight in order to use it to your advantage!
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Our bodies break down the proteins we eat into amino acids, which in turn is used to create ate proteins that need to operate. Proteins serve many di erent functions: Structural, transport, catalysis, contraction, and protection against disease.
Amino acids are also involved in many non-protein reactions. Aminoacids
are used to produce neurotransmitters, hormones and other metabolites
such as creatine or citrulline. Amino acids can also be used as a source of
There are 20 amino acids that make up the majority of mammalian proteins. Each of the amino acids
acid has a similar structure, but di er in the type of side chain attached to
each α-carbon. The side chains confer di erent properties of each amino acid
acid, and are responsible for the three "native" structure
Amino acids are essential ed classification, non-essential, or conditions --
• Essential amino acids are those that our body can not and should
be supplied by the foods we eat. There are 8 essential amino acids: I --
thionine, leucine, valine, isoleucine, threonine, tryptophan, lysine, and
phenylalanine. You can see the number listed as 9 or 10 in some colo --
is, as arginine and histidine are essential amino acids for infants and
very young children.
• non-essential amino acids can be produced by the body of other
• conditionally essential amino acids are essential amino acids that
become essential under conditions of physical stress or trauma, when
the body can not produce a sufficient quantity to meet demand. Some
conditionally essential amino acids are glutamine, arginine, cysteine
Not all amino acids found in proteins. For example, taurine and
beta-alanine functions not only of protein.
The recommendations made in previous sections of body with the nutrients and energy they need to grow. For many people, simply cleaning up your diet and eating quality is sufficient. There is a growing body of research, however, which has contributed to our understanding permanent muscle growth, and highlighted other ways we can manipulate nutrition to improve the anabolic response to exercise.
After all the high GI carbs beating I just did, the reader might think that
is no place for them in the bodybuilders diet. This assumption was
As the expression goes, "there is a time and place for everything", and
is a key time and place of high GI carbohydrates: the work immediately after
Following years, the body preferentially shuttles glucose into the liver
replacement and loss of muscle glycogen by insulin-dependent and not
insulin-dependent glucose transport mechanism. This is the key moment for
take advantage of the high GI carbs such a thing to do: raise blood sugar
and insulin rapidly.
Interestingly, studies have found a better response when insulin and carbohydrate
protein were mixed after the exercises more carbohydrates alone. The combination
further enhances the resynthesis of glycogen, protein synthesis, reduces muscle
and reduces the damage post-exercise levels of the catabolic (muscle)
In a recent study, after the meeting of carbohydrates and protein is also shown by --
increase the expression of androgen receptors (AR) after resistance exercise (RE).
The authors concluded:
"... After feeding RE increased AR content, which can result in increased test --
terone absorption and therefore a higher luteinizing hormone secretion via feedback
Both laboratory experiments and direct experience have demonstrated the
value of consuming a combination of high- GI carbohydrates and quickly
digested protein and/or essential amino acids for enhanced recovery and
anabolism following resistance exercise.
Bodybuilders have done this for years. Some bodybuilders will eat a high
GI meal such as a bowl of white rice or corn akes in skim milk, and drink
a protein shake consisting of whey with it or mix a carb drink with a few
scoops of protein powder. It’s far more convenient - not to mention repro-
ducible - to consume high- GI carbs and protein in the form of a drink. This
is how most of the research was done, and it eliminates any delays in nutri-
ent uptake due to digestion.
Pre-/During Workout Nutrition
Although the e ects of eating various foods or supplements pre-workout
and its e ects on LBM are unclear, recent data suggests nutrients taken im-
mediately before or during exercise may also play an important role.
One recent study found that pre-exercise nutrition had an even greater
impact than eating post-workout. The study was designed to determine
whether consumption of an oral amino acid-carbohydrate supplement be-
fore exercise would result in a greater anabolic response than supplemen-
tation after resistance exercise.
Six subjects participated in two trials in random order. The amino-carb mix
consumed immediately before exercise or the same amino-carb drink con-
sumed immediately after exercise. Blood and muscle phenylalanine (an
amino acid) concentrations were increased by approximately 130% after
drink consumption in both trials. Blood levels of phenylalanine during ex-
ercise increased dramatically and remained elevated for two hours after
exercise in both trials.
What was interesting however was the delivery of amino acids was sig-
ni cantly greater when they took the amino-carb mixture pre-workout vs.
when they ingested the amino-carb drink after exercise.
These researchers concluded:
“...these results indicate that the response of net muscle protein synthesis to
consumption of an amino acid and carbohydrate solution immediately before
resistance exercise is greater than that when the solution is consumed after ex-
ercise, primarily because of an increase in muscle protein synthesis as a result
of increased delivery of amino acids…”
A more recent series of studies examined the e ects of consuming either
carbohydrate, protein, or a combination of the two during resistance ex-
ercise. The researchers found that combined consumption of carbs and
essential amino acids (EAAs) signi cantly reduced post-exercise cortisol
levels, and reduced excretion of 3-methylhistidine - a marker of protein ca-
tabolism - for up to 48 hours post-workout. In a second paper, the same
group also reported greater increases in cross-sectional area of Type I, IIa,
and IIb muscle bers in the group receiving both the carbs and EAAs.
So what’s the take-home lesson?
The best solution is probably to do both: consume some carbs and protein
immediately before, or during your workout, and then after your workout
is complete. We know from previous work that there are additive e ects
when more than one dose of amino acids and carbs are consumed, so it
makes sense to cover all the bases.
This approach is also recommended by researchers John Ivy and Robert
Portman in their recent book “Nutrient Timing”. In their book, they divide
the muscle growth cycle into three distinct phases: the “Energy Phase” (e.g.,
immediately prior to, and during the workout); the “Anabolic Phase: (e.g.,
the 45 minute period following the workout); and the “Growth Phase” (e.g.
the subsequent hours of the day). They present compelling evidence that
the right mixture of nutrients, taken at key points in the muscle growth
cycle, will optimize improvements in muscle growth, strength, and power,
as well as enhance recovery from exercise.
Combining pre- and post-workout nutrition received some very recent, ex-
perimental con rmation. The 10 week study by Dr. Paul Cribb compared
pre- and post-workout carbs, protein and creatine consumed by a group of
resistance-trained men, to a group taking the same nutrients at other times
of the day. Improvements in strength and lean mass were greater in the
group receiving the pre- and post-workout feedings. The study conclud-
Tuesday, July 28, 2009
Finally, we come to put all our hard work with a diet nal structure. The best way to maintain constant blood sugar and a constant availability of nutrients to the body is to divide the calories in 5-7 meals per day.
In the previous sections, it was determined that a 200 lb person
need to eat 200 g protein, 437 g carbohydrate, and 121 g of fat per day. To
how much to eat at each meal, you must divide these figures by
the number of meals: 5, 6 or 7.
Assuming our example is to eat 6 meals a day, this:
Protein: 200 g / 6 = 33.3 g / meal
Carbohydrates: 437 g / 6 = 72.8 g / meal
Fat: 121 g / 6 = 20.2 g / meal
Now, the above is a classic and very easy to approach
aimed at weight gain diet plan, but what time of the nutrients? Although the
magazines and many self proclaimed "guru" types act as if there is any
magic moment of nutrients to be the next Dorian Yates, it is more pseudo -
c science scientific fact.
Of course, it makes sense to eat immediately after waking, since one has
been fasting for 7 - 9 hours of sleep. It is also the reason, based on
the data we have, before and after the session of nutrition can also help
on optimizing the gains in LBM. There are no magical timing of nutrient
however. Or, perhaps I should say there is no magic formulas out there
timing of nutrients that are more than the writer of fantasy.
The fundamental objective is to maintain a constant ow of nutrients throughout
day by dividing your meals properly as mentioned above, and paste
with him. There is also some logic to eat a small protein meal before bed
using a slow digesting protein from the recommended food lists, such as
casein or cottage cheese.
Although all of these strategies, e.g., pre- and post-workout nutrition, eat-
ing before sleep, etc., make intuitive sense, and there is some data to sug-
gest they will help, there really is no solid proof as of yet, that they will
make a di erence beyond simply getting adequate calories of the right
types, and in the right ratios, at regular intervals during the day, as this e-
book has outlined.
Again, don’t be fooled by magic “ nutrient timing” formulas that the author
discovered during his trip to a secret lab in the East, or while working for
the CIA. The time tested rule for people who have made steady gains is to
use a well-designed diet that is consistently applied month in and month
Of the dozen or so professional bodybuilders I have worked with or known,
and the many high level amateur bodybuilders I have worked with, THAT
was what accounted for their diet success, not running o to follow the lat-
est greatest “secret” diet strategy advertised in the mags. In fact, they laugh
at such people.
As in war, anabolic nutrition also follows the K.I.S.S rule for success: Keep
It Simple Stupid…Yes, there are some general rules for timing your meals,
such as eating rst thing in the morning and approximately every 3 hours
after that, using pre- and post-workout drinks, and a having few bites of
cottage cheese before bed; but it’s a pretty straightforward process, I as-
Fat. The very word sends a shiver up the spine of the leanest athlete. With- out a doubt, fat is the most misunderstood and maligned of nutrients. Most people - including people who should know better-educated - take a "fat is fat and should be avoided" to eat. Nothing could be further from the truth, especially when it comes to putting on quality mass. All fats are created equal and we should avoid fat, if it is lean gain mass? The answer to both questions is a resounding no!
It is interesting to note that people have no problem accepting the fact
there are di erent types of carbohydrates and projects on the di erent
body, as described above. The terms "simple" and "complex" or "high glyce --
microphone "and" low glycemic "get thrown around all the time referring to
The same is true of proteins. Terms like "full" and "in --
complete "protein or" high biological value, "and other terms apply
to proteins, when you read an article on the subject.
People seem to have no problem understanding and accepting that there
di are large differences in the types and quality of carbohydrates and proteins
to eat, but often think all fats are equal, no single effort
effects of its own.
"Fat is fat, they say. They are told to avoid all fats and fat to look
as the enemy of the athlete or person who tries to shed some weight. As
brie and described above, as have many fat referrals biochemical di
and projects and in the body as carbohydrates and proteins do.
There are many di erent types of fat such as monounsaturated, saturated --
rated, polyunsaturated, omega-3, omega-6 as well as many others. Into
this group are even more lipids (fats) such as alpha-linolenic (ALA), linoleic
(LA), EPA, DHA, GLA, CLA, and so on. The idea that "fat is a fat, all fats and
are bad for you and should be avoided, of course, is ridiculous and advice
is based on outdated research and sheer ignorance of the subject.
There is no doubt that some saturated fats, and trans fatty acids
shall be limited or avoided if maximum performance, long-term health and / or
Weight loss is the goal.
Moreover, a large amount of recent research showing that the modernization is --
ate intake of fat, the right kinds of fat do - in fact - have a place in the Ath --
letar diet, as well as the average person interested in the long term health,
Weight loss and performance.
Therefore, the trick is learning to see fat as a group of lipids that have their own
unique project in the body. We can then shed the old notion that fat is the
enemy of the athletes, because it is simply not true.
With this in mind, we will follow the pattern of fat requirements for this
chapter when an optimized environment for anabolic growth is the goal.
As most people are aware, hormones such as testosterone, growth hormone --
monetary, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin are the major anabolic
(muscle building) hormones.
It is well known that a hormone is necessary to increase
muscle mass and decrease body fat in response to exercise. For example, a
weight lifting with insufficient testosterone levels almost impossible ª
possible to add muscle mass even though it is weight training and eat well.
A good diet and training regime is essential for increasing muscle strength
mass, and performance. However, without the levels of anabolic hormones,
which is essentially spinning its wheels. This fact has been responsible
some athletes use synthetic versions of anabolic hormones, such
as anabolic steroids and man-made growth hormone, and other com --
pounds. What is overlooked by many people, however, are the projects and
that macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats and proteins) have on the pro --
the production of anabolic hormones.
Testosterone is generally considered the king of anabolic hormones, especially --
especially in men. All that can be positively and securely a testosterone
levels is considered an advantage for athletes interested in building muscle and
While it is essential to increase muscle mass, testosterone has many functions
tions in the human body from the libido, the immunity to depression.
Therefore, an increase in testosterone levels can have many applications.
This is particularly true for men and women (if women need testosterone
too!) their first of the low levels of this essential hormone.
Although high carbohydrate, low fat diets were all the rage for the
past decade, which can be especially hard on testosterone levels.
For example, one study examined 30 healthy male volunteers who were
switched their diet to supply 40 percent of energy as
fat, a diet containing less fat mind significant (25 percent of energy) for 6
The study found a statistically significant decrease significantly in the levels of serum testosterone
(22.7 nmol / L to 19.3 nmol / l), free testosterone and other androgens.
This study also found that a higher proportion of saturated fat to polyunsaturated
fat was positively correlated with higher levels of testosterone.
Another study had two groups eat about the same ratio
and amounts of carbohydrates and fats, found a "mixed" diet that includes
animal products as a result higher levels of testosterone that a lacto-ovo --
Vegetarian diet. Several other studies seem to projects rm e di --
monetary fat testosterone levels and other variables in the diet.
However, there is a ceiling on the amount of fat should be eaten to achieve op --
grayling testosterone levels. Studies suggest that 30 percent of calories from
fat seems to be the right amount of fat is necessary, as superior to the diets
30 - 40 percent showed no additional benefit. The lesson here is, for optimal
hormone production of anabolic hormones in athletes, it is a suitable grease --
Knowing that information, we will set the requirement of the fat out of the ana --
bolic diet with fat comprising 30 percent of total calories.
To determine the total fat of 200 pounds for one person, we must begin with
total calories. 30% of total calories be from fat. As for fat --
Vides 9 calories per gram, divided by 9 gives you the total grams of
Fat for the day:
Total calories from fat: 0.30 x 3640 kcal = 1092 calories
Total grams of fat = 1092 kcal / 9 kcal / g = 121.3 g
Monday, July 27, 2009
if you're trying to improve stamina and your circulatory system, aerobic exercise would benefit you. Whatever you goals are, you'll be able to find the type of exercise appropriate for you, and an exercise regimen that will of the proper intensity and gradient so that you can win with an exercise program. I often from customers who have been exercising with the machine and circuit training become frustrated with the lack of results. What happens too often to repeat the same exercise routine for a body part or muscle group to the adaptation of the muscles. As a general rule,
I always change my exercise routine every month to keep it progressive and make a profit. Occasionally I'll make a "special" workout. I will do all of my favorite exercises and I have not designed a fitness training program. I do this because it is beneficial to the combination of exercise and equipment from time to time. If you keep repeating the same things and have done so over time it has done a good job in maintaining their fitness level and muscles. By the way, have not challenged, not to get the benefits. Even if the performance of maintenance, we still recommend changing your exercise routine.
Another way to vary your fitness routine is changing exercise machines of weights / dumbbells or vice versa. For cardio exercise, moving from tape to the steps, elliptical or bike. With cardio exercises, like interval training because it does exactly that, that vary each time you workout. Instead of always walking on the treadmill at the same speed and incline or grade, changing its speed and increase your rank. This will keep your dynamic exercise and to avoid boredom. More importantly challenge the muscles, heart and Lunges work at different levels.
There are many ways to change your exercise routine. Be creative. Try creating a simple six-week training cycle in which alternate between heavy, medium and light training sessions for each body part. Each time a heavy day, pushing their limits, leaving the light day and a half to build muscle tendon and ligament strength, and endurance. At the end of its cycle of six weeks' duration takes 2-4 days of rest and allow your body to rest. This avoids overtraining and help your body with a better performance when it starts again. Cycling approach is particularly effective for the prevention of injury to the muscle groups and connective tissue in the path.
Its objective is to determine the number of representatives who tend to use. Different numbers of representatives of different purposes. First, know what their goals are in their training. What do you want to achieve? The rules are: to train a force of 6 to 8 reps; resistance to 15 to 20 reps; tonification representatives of the 10-15 in mass and size of 6 to 20 representatives.
There are other factors to the formation, in addition to representatives. The number of games is the number of times you do the exercise with rest in between. Intensity is the level of difficulty in doing exercise usually a percentage of January 1 to a maximum of 10 representatives. Remainder is the amount of time to wait until you do another set. All these factors are controlled variables in an exercise program. Meet your fitness goals and help you determine what your coach is the best combination for you to design your exercise program
As expected, the GI has also been found to be directly involved with the risk of heart disease and other diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Eating high glycemic foods can increase your risk of coronary heart disease. In fact, carbohydrates classi ed by their glycemic index, rather than as either simple or complex, were a better predictor of coronary heart disease in one study.
In another recent study, subjects on a low GI fat loss diet showed greater
improvements in a range of health risk factors, such as blood pressure, insu-
lin resistance, serum triglycerides, and C-reactive protein, than did subjects
consuming a typical, higher carb/low fat diet. Other research has shown
reductions in LDL (“bad”) cholesterol as well.
Epidemiological evidence suggests that diets rich in high glycemic index/
glycemic load carbohydrates are risk factors for a wide variety of other con-
ditions. High GI diets increase the risk of macular degeneration, gallstone
disease, and colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers.
Low GI foods also tend to be more nutrient-dense than high GI, processed
foods, so there are positive e ects to be gained from a low GI/GL diet, be-
yond simple e ects on blood sugar and insulin levels.
There are no downsides associated with eating low- GI foods, beyond being
deprived of junk food, that is!
Sunday, July 26, 2009
A lot of people looking for weight loss hear the words 'eat less and exercise more', but what do they mean. weight loss is not that hard, and you DO have the will power and self control Want to lose weight? Well you're not alone. Are you aware that the latest statistics show that more than half the population of the United States are overweight and nearly eighty percent of these people are on a diet at any time?
That is the reason that if diets work and eighty percent of overweight people in the U.S. are on a diet at a certain percentage then begin to decline. But no! There are still fifty percent of Americans are overweight and this percentage is increasing each year.
Unfortunately, the statistics also show that most people who actually do lose weight after following a diet regain all the weight in a very short time. They do not have the basics correct before you start your weight loss plan. Therefore, if you're going to start a diet to lose weight you must make sure that you get the foundations right so it does not become another statistic!
In this new era of information technology there are all kinds of diets, pills. Potions and plans at your fingertips that can be easily accessed with the click of a mouse. Due to the wide range of options, along with so many different opinions can be overwhelming and seems impossible to decide what is best for you. It is therefore essential that before starting the investigation of methods to lose weight to take some initial steps. Here are several valuable tips to get started.
Start by consulting a professional who specializes in weight loss. This does not mean that someone is your neighbor weight watchers and lost 20 pounds in 2 weeks! Start your search for that contact with a person by his own doctor. While probably not your own doctor specializing in weight loss or nutition he or she is a highly qualified professional who has a deep understanding of the human body. Further he / she is very likely to recommend a more specialized and professional to give contact information.
Next - watch your intake of fats and fat content of foods they are buying. Often people embark on a diet and see every little calories they consume, but not to read the fat content on the labels of their food. Do count calories from fat, but it is much more important. Fat is a major factor in weight gain and the elimination of much of it from their diet can lose weight without affecting too much the amount of food you eat. By reducing your fat intake, you will see a dramatic effect on your overall weight loss and health!
Try to keep a food diary outlining what you eat and how you feel about the food you eat. Health professionals and nutrition recommend this as a powerful first step and your weight. Keep a diary of your food intake, their feelings about food and exercise routines is a powerful way to analyze your eating habits. Be disciplined enough to keep a journal allows you to see if there are emotional reasons such as stress, loneliness or boredom, for example, that are contributing to their eating patterns.
Research plans for weight loss and a selection that you think you could maintain or even enjoy. Look at the history of weight loss plan. Read other people's comments about her to know that one has the largest permanent achievements. Look at what's allowed on diet and foods that are not. Will incorporate some type of fitness program? How much exercise is needed? Will you have enough time and motivation to cook all dishes strange?
There is absolutely no point in launching the start of a diet plan or weight loss if you know you are very hard to find and reach to discourage the start. Use your food diary to plan ahead. Once you have chosen your plan you want to show your doctor or health professional and make sure they approve of it! Many diets and weight loss plans can be very dangerous and threatens health. Make sure your plan is followed to the letter, as it may be doing damage that are not aware that if you do not. For example, a very low calorie diet is recommended in the level of caloric intake, may cause long term adverse effects on your body if you start skipping meals!
Once you begin to ensure that all its positive achievements in their daily food. Beraten not yourself if you fall short of their goals. Make sure you have positive when the adoption is successful. Praise to you to reach each goal, while not losing the weight I wanted to congratulate you when you follow your plan - that is proven to himself that is willing to do this!
Do not allow you to become discouraged if you miss a target. You are still going in the right direction by being focused and disciplined. Pamper yourself a little when you succeed. Buy yourself some new clothes for her new body and enjoy the fact that you have done your best. This is a positive reinforcement and help you maintain your diet and weight in the long term.
As most people who lift weights are well aware, the “one gram of protein per pound of body weight” rule has been the mainstay advice for protein intakes for decades. But is it correct? In the past, mainstream nutritionists and medical doctors have warned of dire consequences from such intakes of protein, which we now know is total bunk.
They also maintained for decades that athletes didn’t need additional pro-
tein above the RDA.
For the past half-century or so, scientists - using crude methods and poor
study design with sedentary people - have held rm to the belief that
bodybuilders, strength athletes of various types, runners, and other highly
active people did not require any more protein than Mr. Potato Head ...err,
I mean the average couch potato.
However, in the past few decades, researchers using better study designs
and methods with actual athletes, have come to a di erent conclusion al-
together - a conclusion hard-training bodybuilders have known for years.
The fact is that active people should consume far more protein than the
RDA to maintain hard-earned muscle tissue when dieting, and to increase
muscle tissue during the o -season.
As one of the top researchers in the eld, Dr. Peter Lemon, stated:
“These data suggest that the RDA for those engaged in regular endurance ex-
ercise should be about 1.2 - 1.4 grams of protein/kilogram of body mass (150%
- 175% of the current RDA) and 1.7 - 1.8 grams of protein/kilogram of body
mass per day (212% - 225% of the current RDA) for strength exercisers.”
Another group of researchers in the eld of protein metabolism found that
strength-training athletes eating 0.86 grams per kilogram of body weight
(close to the RDA for protein) showed a decreased whole body protein syn-
thesis (that’s losing muscle, jack!). They came to an almost identical conclu-
sion to that of Dr. Lemon in recommending at least 1.76 g per kilogram of
bodyweight per day for strength-training athletes to stay in positive nitro
gen balance/increases in whole body protein synthesis
This same group found in later research that endurance athletes also need
far more protein than the RDA/RNI and that men catabolize (break down)
more protein than women during endurance exercise. They concluded:
"In summary, protein requirements for athletes performing strength training
are greater than sedentary individuals and are above the current Canadian
and US recommended daily protein intake requirements for young healthy
It should be noted that there is still some confusion on this point. In fact,
some prominent researchers have suggested that protein metabolism ac-
tually becomes more e cient with training, and that there is no evidence
of increased protein needs for either strength or endurance athletes. How
do we resolve this con ict?
First of all, we need to acknowledge a critical fact: there is a di erence be-
tween what's needed to maintain lean body mass, and what's optimal for
increasing it. As a recent review on the subject acknowledged:
"...for athletes desiring muscle hypertrophy, there is little reason to limit protein
intake and relatively high intakes might be the best recommendation...Even if
2.5 - 3.0 g protein * kg-1 BW *day-1 is consumed and this amount of protein is
more than the synthetic machinery can process, the excess will simply be oxi-
dized. As long as the intake of other nutrients important to the success of an
athlete is not compromised, there appears to be little harm in ingesting these
How does this information relate to the eating habits of the average ath-
lete following the one gram per pound of body weight rule? Well let's see.
Given that scientists work in kilograms we have to do some converting.
Recall that a kilogram weighs 2.2 lb. So, 200 divided by 2.2 gives us 90.9.
Multiply that times 1.8 (the high end of Dr. Lemon's research) and you get
163.6 grams of protein per day.
Now this is an average gure, that doesn't take biochemical individuality
into account. As with vitamins and other nutrients, you identify what looks
to be the precise amount of the compound needed for the e ect you want
(in this case positive nitrogen balance, increased protein synthesis, etc).
Then add a margin of safety to account for the biochemical individuality
of di erent people, remembering the fact that there are low grade protein
sources the person might be eating and other variables. Since there’s no
evidence of harm, it’s best to err on the high side of the range, rather than
So the current recommendation by the majority of bodybuilders, writers,
coaches and others, of one gram per pound of body weight, does a good
job in taking into account the current research and adding a margin of
safety. In my view, one thing is for sure: a little too much protein is far less
detrimental to the athlete’s goal of increasing muscle mass than too little
The truth of the matter, of course, is that many strength training athletes
exceed the one gram per pound of body weight rule and are often closer
to 1.5 to 2 grams of protein per lb. of body weight.
There are no particular reasons why readers can’t eat intakes higher than
one gram per lb. of body weight, if they so desire, but we will stick to the
one gram per lb. gure for this chapter. This makes it relatively simple to
determine total protein intake. An example calculation is shown below.
It’s simple to determine the protein intake for a 200 lb. person:
Total protein: 200 lb. x 1 g /lb. = 200 g
Total calories from protein: 200 g x 4 calories/g = 800 calories
Percentage of cals. from protein: 800 kcal/3640 kcal = 0.22 (22%)
If the person was eating 1.5 to 2 grams of protein per LB of BW as some
do, that percentage gure would be higher. The same person eating
1.5 g of protein per pound of BW would be getting:
Total protein: 200 lb. x 1.5 g/lb. = 300 g
Total calories from protein: 300 g x 4 calories/g = 1200 calories
Percentage of cals. from protein: 1200 kcal/3640 kcal = 0.33 (33%)
On the ip side, there is some evidence that suggests an upper limit, be-
yond which additional protein is useless. There appears to be a dose-re-
sponse relationship between ingestion of essential amino acids and mus-
cle protein synthesis, but only to a point. Protein synthesis in response to
the ingestion of 6 g of essential amino acids was nearly twice that of 6 g of
mixture containing only 3 g of EAAs; but the response was similar after the
ingestion of either 20 g or 40 g or EAA.
The bottom line is that high protein intakes are bene cial, but there’s no
reason to go overboard! There is no evidence that going over 2 g protein
per lb. will be useful for most athletes wishing to build muscle.
people want to know what "Top Ten" foods are - and why I think they're important. It's a tough question, as there's a vast array of foods to choose from, and variety is important for a healthy diet too! Just because some foods are "better" than others in certain ways, doesn't mean that you should restrict your diet to those foods alone, in the mistaken belief that you've got all the bases covered. No one food - or short list of foods - can do it all.
Nonetheless, there are some foods that are especially useful, and pack
some extra "bang" for your calorie "buck". So keeping the above consider-
ations in mind, here's my "Top 10" list of foods that should make regular
appearances on your menu. These are:
1. Lean Beef
2. Skinless Chicken/Turkey Breasts
3. Cottage Cheese
5. Whey Protein
6. Tuna and Other Fish
8. Whole Grains
9. Fruits and Vegetables
10. Healthy Fats
What's so special about these foods? Here's the scoop:
o Lean Beef: Beef is often overlooked due to the perception that it's too
high in fat. While this is true for many cuts, there are several that have
more fat than other popular low fat choices, such as skinless
chicken or turkey. For example, if you check out the nutritional infor-
mation in the Food Database in the Members’ Area, you’ll discover that
100 grams (3 1/2 oz.) of broiled Top Sirloin steak provides a solid 30
grams of high quality protein, yet contains under 6 grams of fat.
Beyond the macronutrient content, beef is loaded with all sorts of
things that are conducive to muscle growth. Beef is a source of highly
bioavailable heme iron, creatine, carnitine, carnosine, CLA, B-vitamins,
zinc and selenium. It should be a staple of any anabolic diet.
See the shopping lists in Chapter 3 and Appendix A for more cuts of
beef that o er outstanding nutrition without excessive fat.
Skinless Turkey and Chicken Breasts: Versatility and ease of prepara-
tion make these low fat meats the rst choice for many bodybuilders.
It’s easy to nd boneless and skinless poultry, already cut into single
serving sizes which can be seasoned and quickly cooked in a variety of
ways. Both are excellent sources of high quality protein and provide
signi cant amounts of niacin, vitamin B6 and selenium.
Cottage Cheese: This is one of the most underrated bodybuilding
foods. It’s made by acidi cation of milk at a pH 4.6, which causes pre-
cipitation of the casein proteins. After that, the whey is drained o
and the curd is washed repeatedly. The washings function to remove
lactose and prevent further acidi cation of the curd, leaving relatively
pure casein protein. It’s also a an excellent source of vitamin B12 and a
good source of calcium, phosphorous, zinc, folate, ribo avin and vita-
min B6. Cottage cheese can be found in nonfat and low fat (1% milkfat)
versions, which are preferable to the higher fat (4%) products.
Eggs/Egg Whites: Eggs are considered one of nature’s most perfect
foods, and they’ve been used as the standard for evaluating the pro-
tein quality from other food sources. Although eggs have gotten a
bad rap for their cholesterol content, data has shown that dietary cho-
lesterol has less impact on serum cholesterol than was previously sup-
posed. Most people who eat eggs on a regular basis nd they don’t
increase their cholesterol levels.
Omega-3 forti ed eggs are now available from axseed-fed chickens,
which provide an additional bene t.Protein: Whey protein is fully covered in the supplement section
in Chapter 5, so only a summary is needed here. Whey is a product of
milk. The two major proteins found in cow’s milk are whey and casein.
The whey proteins are separated and puri ed into whey concentrates
and isolates. Whey has an exceptionally high biological value, high
levels of BCAAs, and low levels of lactose and fat. Whey protein also in-
creases the body’s supply of glutathione, which improves immunity
and helps protect against cancer. Glutathione’s antioxidant activity
may help protect athletes against overtraining syndrome, and provide
other positive health and performance bene ts.
Saturday, July 25, 2009
Ok, the reader is now thinking, “It can’t be that complicated to gure out how many calories I need to gain quality weight!” The reader would be correct. I just wanted to show some of the methods commonly used to get exact gures for calories. A much simpler, albeit potentially less ne-tuned method for calculating calorie needs, goes like so:
Return to T.O.C.
Slight Weight Gain
Greater Weight Gain
Weight Gain (Active People)
Calories per kg
20 - 25 kcal x kg
25 - 30 kcal x kg
30 - 35 kcal x kg
35 - 40 kcal x kg
45 kcal x kg
Calories per lbs
9 - 11 kcal x lbs
11 - 14 kcal x lbs
14 - 16 kcal x lbs
16 - 18 kcal x lbs
20 kcal x lbs
So, let’s return to our person who weighs 200 lb. (about 91 kg). We’ll use
the goal of “Greater Weight Gain” and a gure of 40 kcal/kg for a person -
like me - who is active, but not really an athlete. If we crunch the numbers,
we nd that such a person will need 3,640 calories a day.
This is, needless to state, pretty close to the gure of 3,509 calories we
worked so hard to come up with in the previous section. Another victory
for the K.I.S.S. principle!
Now, those numbers are not written in stone. For example, the reader could
start out using the 35 kcals per kg gure and see if that is enough calories
to start gaining weight while lifting weights and doing other activities.
In my experience however, this might not be enough calories. Another
method may be to start at the 35 kcals per kg gure and add 300 kcals per
week until weight gain occurs.
You will have to make some judgement calls and decisions on your own
regarding calories. For example, if you are naturally lean and have had
trouble putting weight on in the past, you may want to start at the higher
calorie intake of 45 kcals per kg.
On the other hand, if you are a person who carries more body fat than you
want, or have always had an easy time gaining weight in the form of body
fat, you may want to start at the lower calorie intake of either 30 or 35 kcals
I strongly suggest you keep good records of your food and supplements,
you can do this using the Diet Planner software in the Members’ Area. Us-
ing the Diet Planner will be covered in detail in the next chapter, but suf-
ce it to say, it’s a valuable tool that can help you track your diet and make
adjustments according to your results.
While it’s important to eat as “clean” as possible, past a certain point it’s
often di cult - especially for very active, younger people - to get enough
calories from the recommended foods. It’s virtually impossible to eat
4,000+ calories a day from boiled chicken and brown rice as many of the
bodybuilders in the magazines claim to do (hint: I have been with many a
pro bodybuilder who virtually lived at Taco Bell in the o -season!). Enlist-
ing the help of protein powders, MRP’s, and other calorie dense foods (e.g.,
think pizza and a few cheese burgers!) becomes necessary. A thin crust
pizza with some added tuna, for example, when your exercising hard is no
great sin. Additionally a burger on wholemeal bread, with a homemade
100% beef patty and salad, is equally in the cards when your trying to con-
sume over 4000 calories per day (and for some, as much as 7000 calories or
more per day). Anabolic nutrition requires anabolic foods, so nutrition is a
priority when creating your diet plan. Feel free to improvise, however, to
get the calories you need. Capische?
Now that we have the approximate calories gured out for making consis-
tent gains in weight, we need to gure out the macronutrient breakdown.
That is, we have to gure out how much protein, fat, and carbs a person
needs within the context of caloric intake, as gured above. The best way
to go about that goal is: a) gure out protein requirements; followed by b)
fat requirements; and nally c) carbohydrate requirements. Following this
“a, b, c” format will make the process easier to understand and follow
There are several methods for calculating calories specie to the needs and
desires of the individual - in this case, men and women who want to pack
on quality weight (i.e. muscle) as a result of their hard work in the gym.
Some formulas are a tad on the complicated side while others are quite
simple. Although the following section will be overly complicated for
some, don’t despair. A far easier method for calculating calories follows,
and the entire e-book uses it for the calculations on diet and calories. Ulti-
mately, we will depend on the simple calorie calculations as our guide in
It should be noted, however, that the more complicated formulas tend to
be the more precise. An example of one of the more complicated formulas
for guring out calorie intakes based on the person’s gender, activity lev-
els, etc. is below. First, you need to calculate your RMR., then add TEM and
EPEE, to get TEE. Finally, you have to add additional calories if weight gain
is the goal.
Probably the most commonly used formula for calculating RMR., is known
as the Harris-Benedict formula. It di ers for male/female. However, an eas-
ier variant of Harris-Benedict Formula goes like so:
Formula to calculate RMR for men:
RMR = 66 + (13.7 x weight in kg) + (5 x height in cm)
- (6.8 x age in years)
Formula to calculate RMR for women:
RMR = 655 + (9.6 X weight in kg) + (1.8 X height in
cm) - (4.7 X age in years)
To calculate your total calorie needs, multiply your RMR by the appropriate
• If you are sedentary (little or no exercise, desk job): multiply your
RMR by 1.2
Chapter 2/The Harris-Benedict Formula
If you are lightly active (light exercise/sports 1-3 days/wk): multiply
your RMR by 1.375
If you are moderately active (moderate exercise/sports 3-5 days/wk):
multiply your RMR by 1.55
If you perform heavy exercise (hard exercise/sports 6-7 days/wk):
multiply your RMR by 1.725
Don’t forget: add 10% to account for TEM
Using the above formula and other needed information to gure out
how many calories are needed for quality gains, I plugged in my own
stats: 167.5cm tall, 41 years old, and the moderate Activity Multiplier
of 1.55. Because the e-book uses the body weight of 200 lb. through-
out as the example weight in the Simple Method and the rest of the
e-book, I used that weight (though I weigh approximately 175 lb. give
or take) in the formula. So:
Weight in kilograms: 200 lb. / 2.2 = 90.9 kg
Height = 167.5 cm
Age = 41
Activity Multiplier: 1.55
RMR = 66 + (13.7 x 90.9 kg) + (5 x 167.5 cm) - (6.8 x 41 years) = 66 +
1245.3 + 837.5 - 278.8 = 1870 kcal
1870 kcal x 1.55 = 2898.5 kcal - this can be rounded o to 2900 kcal
Now we add 10% (290 kcal) to account for TEM:
2900 + 290 = 3190 kcal
So - for the purposes of this example, my total calorie needs ( TDEE) are
3190 kcal per day.
The above still only accounts for RMR, TEM, and to some degree, EEPA, but
does not take into account the goal of actually gaining weight. We need
to add additional calories for that.
My recommendation would be to add an additional 10% to the number
you come up with if you choose to use the above formula. So, continuing
my example, 3190 kcals plus an additional 10% = 3509 kcals per day for the
above example to account for RMR, TEF, EEPA, plus an additional 10% to
that gure to gain weight.
Remember, those numbers can be quite di erent person-to-person as such
a formula has many potential variables to plug in. Thus, do not use my ex-
amples to decide on calorie intakes.
Also, one does not have to start out with an additional 10%. People who
add fat easily or already have a higher amount of body fat may need to
exercise more caution. One could start out with an additional 5% and see
if weight gain takes place, increasing calories by 5% until weight gain does
Hardgainers, on the other hand, could start with 20% above RMR, TEF, and
EEPA, to get weight gain moving.
What do I recommend? I recommend you make life much easier on your-
self and forget all about this formula and use the “Simple Method” outlined
in the next section! The point of this section was to highlight the di erent
factors that determine total daily energy needs. Some people like to make
things as hard as they can, but for the rest of us, the K.I.S.S. principle works
just as well.
Before we set calories and gure out correct amounts for proteins, fats and carbs, it’s important to understand where the calories go when we eat. Understanding what happens to the calories in metabolism helps us make smart decisions about what we should be eating for a particular goal, such as losing or gaining weight.
There is a strong synergism between the foods we eat and our perfor-
mance, muscle mass and body fat levels. People debate (make that ght!)
about every aspect of nutrition: high carb vs. low carb diets, high protein
diets, high fat diets vs. low fat diets, and so on.
Regardless of which diet a person follows, one element always remains a
constant: the concept of energy balance. The energy balance equation can
be summed up as:
Energy Intake = Energy Expenditure + Energy Storage.
It does not matter if your goal is to lose, maintain or gain body weight.
Everything ultimately revolves around this simple equation. The type and
ratios of macronutrients we eat matters as well as the total number of calo-
Brink’s Universal Law of Nutrition states: “Total calories dictate how much
you lose or gain, and macronutrient types and ratios dictate what you lose
To better understand energy balance, we must rst be familiar with the
components of energy expenditure. Total daily energy expenditure ( TDEE,
which is the average number of calories one oxidizes or “burns” in a day)
can be partitioned into three components:
• Resting metabolic rate (RMR)
• Thermic e ect of a meal ( TEM)
• Energy expenditure of physical activity (EEPA)
Return to T.O.C.
“ Brink’s Univer-
sal Law of Nutri-
tion states: ‘Total
how much you lose
or gain, and mac-
and ratios dictate
what you lose or
Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)
Chapter 2/Where Does The Food Go? Understanding TDEE
RMR makes a major contribution to TDEE and is associated with the energy
cost of maintaining physiological homeostasis.
This includes the energy cost of maintaining body temperature, cardiac
output, respiration, nervous system function and other involuntary activi-
This component of energy expenditure is in uenced by body fat levels,
gender, and physical tness, but is determined primarily by lean body mass.
Therefore, the greater the amount of lean body mass that you have at any
given body weight, the greater your caloric expenditure - even at rest.
Your metabolism is the rate at which your body oxidizes (burns) calories
to live. About 10 percent of your total daily energy expenditure is used to
convert the food you eat into fuel or blubber (fat). Another 20 percent or
so is accounted for by exercise and the everyday physical activities of life. I
don’t believe these gures are written in stone, but you can get an idea of
where the calories you eat are going, at least.
However, the biggest block of energy is consumed by your resting meta-
bolic rate (RMR), which accounts for up to 75 percent of your daily expen-
With the RMR accounting for this big a chunk of your daily calories, it be-
hooves you to focus on the RMR as a key spot to manipulate. For example,
people who are naturally blessed with a higher RMR will burn up to 200
calories more each day, even when they perform identical activities.
Can the RMR be altered? Of course! Your RMR is ultimately controlled by
your genetic makeup; but age, gender and body composition also play an
important role. Altering your body composition by increasing your muscle
mass and decreasing body fat will increase RMR.
The reader may be thinking, “how do I increase my RMR?” Fortunately,
when it comes to altering your RMR, nothing beats weight training.
over aerobics any day. Several recent studies have con rmed that resis-
tance training maintains resting metabolic rate (RMR) better than aerobics.
Studies have shown, as well, that resistance training is far superior to aero-
bics for maintaining the metabolically active tissue we need (muscle!) for a
superior fat burning metabolism, while trying to gain muscle mass.
Weight lifting is the best exercise you can do to keep your metabolism el-
evated over long periods of time. Resistance training burns approximately
the same number of calories as running or hopping around in an aerobics
class, but - unlike aerobics - the calorie burning and metabolism raising ef-
fects of weight training continue long after the activity has ended.
Aerobic exercise can never o er that bene t. After aerobic exercise, RMR
returns to normal within an hour or so, resulting in the consumption of a
few additional calories. Big deal. After weight lifting, RMR remains elevated
for up to 15 hours! The bottom line: weight training increases post-exercise
metabolism and builds muscle that is far more metabolically active than
OK, back to the energy equation and understanding TDEE.
Thermic Effect of a Meal (TEM)
TEM is the energy increase that takes place after you eat a meal containing
protein, carbohydrate, fat and alcohol.
The increase in energy expenditure is due to the cost of digestion, absorp-
tion, mobilization and storage of these macronutrients. On average this
component comprises approximately 10 percent of TDEE. Perhaps most
importantly, the thermic response to ingested foods is driven primarily by
the ratio of macronutrients.
In other words, the thermic e ect of the meal can vary widely, depending
on the ratio of carbs, fats and proteins in a given meal. While both protein
and carbohydrate will elicit notable and signi cant thermic responses, fat
does not. This is one of several reasons why higher fat diets have been
blamed for increased body fat levels over the years.
However, as mentioned throughout this chapter, the e ects that fats have
on body fat are complicated, since certain fats are helpful for reducing body
fat, blocking fat storage, and for increasing beta-oxidation, etc. Though
“ After aerobic
returns to normal
within an hour or
so, resulting in the
a few additional
calories. Big deal.
After weight lift-
ing, RMR remains
elevated for up to
15 hours! Bottom
line, weight train-
ing builds muscle
that is far more
tive than fat.”
the e ect of fat on TEM is important to know, it’s even more important - in
my view - to remember that not all fats are created equal in terms of their
e ects on metabolism.
To conclude TEM, it can be stated that TEM varies according to the mixture
or ratio of macronutrients eaten at a given meal and can be manipulated
– to either increase or decrease TDEE – by altering the composition of the
Energy Expenditure of Physical Activity (EEPA)
EEPA is the most variable component of TDEE. Translated, it’s up to us to be
either couch potatoes or gym rats! EEPA is composed of both involuntary
(i.e., shivering) and voluntary muscular activity, such as exercise.
EEPA is in uenced somewhat by body weight and composition. This
means a heavier person will require more energy than a lighter person and
a leaner person will require more energy than a fatter counterpart of the
same weight for the same activity and intensity.
However, EEPA is primarily driven by an individual’s desire and ultimate
performance of activity, which is how hard they bust their butt on a par-
Putting the TDEE Together
Finally, we can now equate a person’s caloric needs as:
TDEE = RMR + TEM + EEPA
The TDEE can help us - not just to understand what our metabolisms do
with the foods we eat - but to ne-tune our diets to achieve our goal of
either gaining weight or losing it. If your TDEE exceeds calorie intake, you
lose weight. If your calorie intake exceeds TDEE (i.e. you are eating more
calories than you are “burning”) you will gain weight.
The real question is: what will that gained weight be? Fat? Muscle? Ulti-
mately what you gain or lose will be dependent on the ratio of macronutri-
ents, exercise choices, and genetics.